The insecticide diflubenzuron (DFB) is commonly used in various mid-Atlantic states for suppression of gypsy moths in hardwood forests. DFB is potentially toxic to nontarget biota because it can enter aquatic systems through aerial application or runoff after precipitation events. Based on this concern, the objectives of this study were to: (1) compile, review, and synthesize literature on the fate, persistence, and environmental concentrations of DFB in both freshwater and saltwater environments; (2) compile, review, and synthesize acute and chronic aquatic toxicity data on DFB effects on freshwater and saltwater organisms; (3) assess possible risk to aquatic biota associated with the use Woolrich Uk of this insecticide in one specific area (Maryland); and (4) recommend future research based on the data gaps identified from this study. DFB has low solubility in water and exists as a technical grade (TG) and wettable powder (WP) formulation. The toxicity of both formulations is similar at concentrations less than 10 micrograms/l. Organic matter is a major factor influencing the adsorption and degradation of DFB in freshwater, saltwater, and sediment. The half-life of this insecticide in freshwater is approximately 3 days at a pH woolrich Parka of 10 and temperature of 36 degrees C. woolrich Arctic Parka At lower pH conditions of 6 and at the same temperature, DFB is more persistent since half-life values of approximately 9 days have been reported. The half-life of DFB in soil is less than 14 days when the particle size was approximately 2 microns. The half-life is generally greater in cool, dry soil than in hot, wet soil. Aquatic vegetation acts as a sink for DFB by gradually adsorbing the chemical and releasing it over a period of time. Freshwater organisms demonstrated a wide range of sensitivity to DFB. Sensitivity was dependent on body composition (i.e., exo- vs. endoskeleton), trophic level, and life stage. During acute exposures, aquatic invertebrates were more than 25,000 times as sensitive to DFB than fishes. The most acutely sensitive species tested was the Amphipod, Hyallela azteca (96-h LC50 = 1.84 micrograms/l). A mature Plecopteran, Skwala sp., was the most resistant woolrich John Rich & Bros invertebrate species tested in acute tests (96-h LC50 greater than 100,000 micrograms/l). In chronic tests, DFB concentrations of 1 microgram/l or greater were reported to eliminate populations of various Plecopteran (stoneflies) and Ephemeropteran (mayflies) species after 1 month of exposure. A 30-day LC50 of 0.1 micrograms/l DFB was also reported for the Tricopteran, Clistorinia magnifica.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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